The monitorial schools or Bell-Lancaster system (system of mutual learning) present the form of studying which implies that senior and knowledgeable students train the pupils of younger age. This system appeared in 1798 in the UK.
Firstly, the teacher worked with the senior students, who, having some knowledge, began to teach the junior students under the guidance of the teacher. They were called the monitors. The main advantages of the system were the following. The material was explained to the younger students in a clear and understandable manner since the difference in age and intellectual development was leveled. Secondly, the system promoted self-education of the monitors. However, the main drawback of monitorial schools was lack of the necessary knowledge and skills among the teaching students.
The monitorial system did not provide the proper training of children so it did not became widespread. At the same time the monitorial schools were rather common in the United States during the American Revolution for the literacy education.
Sunday schools are the classes for children where they are taught the basics of the Christian faith and biblical subjects, often in the form of games. The term Sunday schools is derived from the day of the classes as they were usually held on Sundays. The feature that distinguishes them from the ordinary schools is the fact that they were non-mandatory. The top priority of the Sunday schools was working with children.
The education of children in Christian traditions was one of the main objectives of Sunday schools in the United States during the American Revolution.The education of children in Christian traditions was one of the main objectives of Sunday schools in the United States during the American Revolution.
The free school societies were to bring education and literacy to children and stimulate their natural development. The impulses of the natural growth of the child were the basis of the process of teaching: the social impulse (the desire to communicate), the constructive impulse (the desire to move in the game), the impulse to research (craving for recognition and understanding), and the expressive impulse.
Among the best examples of similar efforts to expand educational opportunities today one can name the 'Lab School' (by Dewey); the 'Play School' (by K. Pratt) based on the principle of using games and method of dramatization in the learning process; the 'Organic School'.